Splenic tumors are rare compared to the incidence of such tumors in other organs.
Splenic tumors can be classified into two main categories: Lymphoid and Non-lymphoid.
Metastatic tumors to the spleen are rare. Metastatic tumors to spleen mainly arise from breast cancer, lung cancer and melanoma.
Splenomegaly is confirmed using imaging studies.
Ultrasound of abdomen is a highly sensitive investigation which detects splenomegaly and it also helps in differentiating splenic cysts from other splenic tumors.
Contrast CT of abdomen and CT chest is necessary to evaluate the splenic tumor and to differentiate between various types of splenic tumors. CT scan also helps in evaluating the other intra-abdominal organs and in planning for surgery.
Complete blood count (CBC), Differential leukocyte count (DLC), Platelet count along with a peripheral blood smear should be done in cases of splenomegaly.
Surgical removal of spleen is known as splenectomy. It is considered as the treatment of choice in patients with Non Lymphoid splenic tumors. Splenectomy is typically performed laparoscopically using small incisions. In patients with massive splenomegaly, need for an open splenectomy should be considered as an option.
For patients with lymphoid tumors, treatment of choice is chemotherapy. But in patients with massive spleen causing pain or pressure symptoms, splenectomy should be considered along with chemotherapy.